Book 2 Hands-On Projects

Book 2 hands-on projects include:

Simple Experiments: Basic experiments where students practice using the scientific method and collecting data. 

Experiments: More complex experiments where students use more advanced techniques to gather data. 

Activities: Students explore phenomena make observations and evaluate what they observe. 

Design: Students design a product. 

Mission: Students are tasked with a mission where they use experiments and design principles to solve a problem. 

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook page.

Materials List:

Common Science Tools (rulers, magnifying glasses, thermometers, measuring cups, etc.)

Craft Supplies (cardboard, tape, scissors, markers, glue, string, etc.)

Notebook Order Here

Pencil Order Here

Objective:

To understand the function of common science tools and use your creativity to design and build your own science tool.

R-Research:

Begin by exploring common science tools and asking your own questions. This will help guide your learning and make the experiment more meaningful. Review Chapter 1 and explore common science tools, like rulers, magnifying glasses, thermometers, and measuring cups. Think about how they are used in experiments.

  • Step 1: Think about a question prompt to begin your inquiry. Example "Science tools help us make accurate observations and measurements."
  • Step 2: Write down as many questions as you can about the question prompt. Consider questions like: "What are some common science tools?" "How do these tools help in experiments?" "Can I create my own science tool?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Decide which questions are open-ended (more detailed answers) or closed-ended (yes/no answers). Refine them to make them clearer.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Choose one or two questions that you find most interesting or important to explore further. Write down your prioritized questions in your notebook.

A-Ask A Question:

Reflect on your research and ask your own question. Here are some prompts to help:

  • "What do I wonder about the science tools I use?"
  • "How can I create a new science tool?"

Write down the question that interests you the most in your notebook.

Form a Hypothesis:

Make a hypothesis (a guess) about your chosen question. For example:

  • "I think a magnifying glass helps me see small details more clearly."
  • "I think I can create a tool that measures how much sunlight a plant gets."

T-Test, Tinker, Try: Conduct an Experiment:

  1. Step 1: Review the functions of common science tools. Think about how each tool is used and why it is important.
  2. Step 2: Gather your craft supplies and brainstorm ideas for your own science tool. Consider what your tool will measure or observe and how it will work.
  3. Step 3: Design and build a prototype of your tool using the craft supplies.
  4. Step 4: Test your tool to see how it works and make any necessary adjustments.
  5. Step 5: Write a description of your tool, explaining how it works and what it measures or observes.

Observe and Record:

Observe and take notes on the design and function of your science tool. Record your observations in your notebook, noting the purpose and design of your tool.

A-Analyze Data:

Reflect on what you observed. How did your tool function? What materials did you use? How creative was your design?

Draw a Conclusion:

Based on your observations, conclude whether your hypothesis was correct. Why or why not? Explain the importance of creativity and innovation in designing science tools.

TAZ-Share Results:

Write a summary of your findings. Explain what you observed and learned about science tools and the creative process of designing a new one.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Science Tools: Instruments used to make accurate observations and measurements in experiments.
  • Innovation: Creating new and useful tools or methods.

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook pages.

Materials List:

Litmus Paper (neutral) Order Here

Small Clear Cups or Beakers Order Here

Common Household Liquids

  • vinegar
  • lemon juice
  • baking soda
  • mineral water
  • soap solution

Plastic Droppers Order Here

Notebook Order Here

Pencil Order Here

Objective:

To help students identify acids & bases using litmus paper.

Research:

Begin by guiding students to ask their own questions about acids and bases. Following the philosophy from "Make Just One Change," the teacher will facilitate a student-directed inquiry process.

Briefly introduce the concepts of acids and bases. Explain that acids and bases are substances that can change the color of litmus paper, with acids turning blue litmus paper red and bases turning red litmus paper blue.

  • Step 1: Present a prompt for student inquiry. Example "Acids and bases change the color of litmus paper."
  • Step 2: Students generate as many questions as they can about the prompt. Encourage students to ask questions like: "What is an acid?" "What is a base?" "How do acids and bases affect litmus paper?" "Which household liquids are acids or bases?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Help students distinguish between open-ended and closed-ended questions. Encourage them to refine their questions to make them clearer and more focused.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Have students select one or two questions that they find most interesting or important to explore further during the experiment. Have students write down their prioritized questions in their notebooks.

Ask A Question:

Encourage students to ask their own questions based on their research. Teachers can guide them with prompts such as:

  • "What do you wonder about the liquids we use at home?"
  • "How do you think different household liquids will affect litmus paper?"

Students should choose one question that interests them the most and write it down in their notebooks.

Form a Hypothesis:

Have the students make a hypothesis (a guess) about their chosen question. For example:

  • "I think vinegar will turn litmus paper red."
  • "I think orange juice will turn litmus paper blue."

Test, Tinker, Try: Conduct an Experiment:

  1. Step 1: Gather all the materials, including litmus paper, small clear cups, household liquids, and plastic droppers.
  2. Step 2: Use a piece of litmus paper to test a control acid and a control base. Use vinegar for the acid and baking soda water for the base. Tape the litmus paper controls on the student notebook page or in a notebook.
  3. Step 3: Label each cup with the name of the household liquid it will contain.
  4. Step 4: Pour a small amount of each liquid into its respective cup.
  5. Step 5: Using plastic droppers, place a drop of each liquid onto a strip of red litmus paper and a strip of blue litmus paper.
  6. Step 6: Observe the color change in the litmus paper and record the results.

Observe and Record:

Have the students observe the color changes in the litmus paper. They should record their observations in their notebooks, noting which liquids turned litmus paper blue and which turned litmus paper red.

Analyze Data:

Discuss with the students what they observed. Which liquids were acids? Which were bases? How did the colors of the litmus paper help them identify acids and bases?

Draw a Conclusion:

Ask the students to conclude based on their observations. Was their hypothesis correct? Why or why not? Explain that acids turn litmus paper red and bases turn litmus paper blue.

Share Results:

Let the students share their findings with others. They can use their recorded data to explain what they observed and learned about acids and bases.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Acids: Substances that litmus paper red.
  • Bases: Substances that turn litmus paper blue.
  • Litmus Paper: An indicator used to identify acids and bases.

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook pages.

Materials List:

  • Small Samples of Different Foods (e.g., lemon slices, sugar water, salt water, unsweetened chocolate, dill pickle slices)
  • Small Cups or Spoons for Each Food Sample
  • Water (for rinsing your mouth between tastes)

Pen or Pencil

Objective:

To test if different parts of your tongue are more sensitive to different tastes or if this is a myth.

Research:

Begin by exploring what you've heard about the tongue and its taste zones. This will help guide your investigation. Research what scientists say about whether or not different parts of the tongue are responsible for different tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (savory).

  • Step 1: Think about a question to start your inquiry. Example "Different parts of the tongue can sense different flavors."
  • Step 2: Write down as many new questions as you can about your question. Consider questions like: "Which part of the tongue tastes sweet?" "Can I taste all flavors on every part of my tongue?" "What foods show these tastes best?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Decide which questions are open-ended (requiring detailed answers) or closed-ended (yes/no answers). Refine them to make them clearer.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Choose one or two questions that you find most interesting or important to explore. Write down your prioritized questions in your notebook.

Ask A Question:

Reflect on your research and pick one question you want to ask that you might be able to answer. Here are some prompts to help:

  • "What do I wonder about how my tongue senses different tastes?"
  • "Do different parts of my tongue taste differently?"

Form a Hypothesis:

Make a hypothesis (a guess) about your chosen question. For example:

  • "I think the tip of my tongue will taste sweet the best."
  • "I think I can taste all flavors on all parts of my tongue."

Test, Tinker, Try: Conduct an Experiment:

  1. Step 1: Gather all the materials, including food samples, small cups or spoons, and water for rinsing your mouth.
  2. Step 2: Label each food sample with its taste category (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, savory).
  3. Step 3: Taste each food sample one at a time, focusing on different parts of your tongue (tip, sides, back, and middle). Rinse your mouth with water between tastes.
  4. Step 4: Pay close attention to how each part of your tongue reacts to each taste and take notes.

Observe and Record:

Observe if different parts of your tongue react to different tastes or all the parts are the same. Record your observations in your notebook, noting any differences in taste perception.

Analyze Data:

Reflect on what you observed. Were different parts of your tongue more sensitive to certain tastes? Were there any surprises?

Draw a Conclusion:

Based on your observations, conclude whether your hypothesis was correct. Why or why not? Explain if the myth about taste zones on the tongue is true or not.

Share Results:

Write a summary of your findings and share it with others. Explain what you observed and learned about how your tongue senses different tastes.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Taste Zones: The traditionally believed areas of the tongue that are more sensitive to certain tastes.

Click here to download a pdf with student notebook pages.

Materials List:

  • Slices of Bread
  • Resealable Plastic Bags
  • Spray Bottle with Water
  • Various Food-Safe Materials
  1. vinegar
  2. lemon juice
  3. salt water
  4. honey
  • Marker
  • Magnifying Glass (optional)
  • Pencil

Objective:

To help you understand which food-safe materials can prevent mold growth and how different conditions affect mold growth.

Research:

Begin by exploring what preservatives are and how they work. This will help guide your investigation and make the experiment more meaningful. Review Chapter 9 and read about mold: what it is, where it grows, and why it grows. Mold is a type of fungus that thrives in damp, warm environments. Also, look into what preservatives are and how they prevent food spoilage.

  • Step 1: Think about a prompt to begin your inquiry. Example "Some materials can prevent mold from growing on food."
  • Step 2: Write down as many new questions as you can about the prompt. Consider questions like: "What conditions help mold grow the best?" "Which materials can prevent mold growth?" "How do preservatives work?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Decide which questions are open-ended (requiring detailed answers) or closed-ended (yes/no answers). Refine them to make them clearer.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Choose one or two questions that you find most interesting or important to explore further. Write down your prioritized questions in your notebook.

Ask A Question:

Reflect on your research and select one question you want to answer.

Form a Hypothesis:

Make a hypothesis (a guess) about your chosen question. For example:

  • "I think vinegar will prevent mold from growing on bread."
  • "I think honey will stop mold growth better than salt water."

Test, Tinker, Try: Conduct an Experiment:

Control Experiment:

  • Step 1: Gather all the materials, including slices of bread, resealable plastic bags, a spray bottle with water, and a marker.
  • Step 2: Label a few plastic bags as "Control" and note the conditions (e.g., "Wet Bread - Room Temp," "Dry Bread - Room Temp").
  • Step 3: Place a slice of bread in each control plastic bag. For the "wet bread" bags, lightly spray the bread with water before sealing the bag.
  • Step 4: Place the bags in the same conditions (room temperature).
  • Step 5: Observe the bread over the next several days. Look for signs of mold growth and take notes.

Test Experiment:

  • Step 1: Label additional plastic bags with the food-safe material being tested (e.g., "Vinegar," "Lemon Juice," "Salt Water," "Honey").
  • Step 2: Place a slice of bread in each plastic bag. Apply a small amount of the test material (e.g., a few drops of vinegar) to the bread before sealing the bag.
  • Step 3: Place these bags in the same conditions as the control bags (room temperature).
  • Step 4: Observe the bread over the next several days. Look for signs of mold growth and take notes.

Observe and Record:

Observe how mold grows on the bread under different conditions. Record your observations in your notebook, noting which bread shows signs of mold first, and how the mold develops over time.

Analyze Data:

Reflect on what you observed. Which materials prevented mold growth? Were there any surprises?

Draw a Conclusion:

Based on your observations, conclude whether your hypothesis was correct. Why or why not? Explain how different materials affected mold growth.

Share Results:

Write a summary of your findings. Explain what you observed and learned about mold prevention using food-safe materials.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Mold: A type of fungus that grows in damp, warm environments.
  • Preservatives: Substances used to prevent food spoilage by inhibiting the growth of molds, bacteria, and yeasts.

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook pages.

Materials List:

  • Toy Car
  • Ruler or Measuring Tape
  • Ramp (e.g., a piece of cardboard or a wooden board)
  • Boxes (to adjust the ramp's height)
  • Sand paper
  • Stick glue
  • Stopwatch or Timer
  • Pencil

Objective:

To help students understand how objects move in a straight line and how different forces affect their motion.

R-Research:

Begin by exploring what linear motion is and how different forces can affect it. This will help guide student learning and make the experiment more meaningful. Review Chapter 12 and explore what students learned about linear motion: when an object moves in a straight line. Help students understand that forces like push and pull can affect its speed and direction.

  • Step 1: Think about a statement to begin your inquiry. Example: "Objects move in a straight line when pushed or pulled."
  • Step 2: Write down as many questions as you can about the statement. Consider questions like: "What causes objects to move in a straight line?" "How does the height of a ramp affect the speed of a toy car?" "How do different surfaces affect the motion of a toy car?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Decide which questions are open-ended (requiring detailed answers) or closed-ended (yes/no answers). Refine them to make them clearer.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Choose one or two questions that you find most interesting or important to explore further. Write down your prioritized questions in your notebook.

A-Ask A Question:

Write down the question that interests you the most in your notebook.

Form a Hypothesis:

Make a hypothesis (a guess) about your chosen question. For example:

  • "I think a higher ramp will make the toy car go faster."
  • "I think the toy car will travel farther on a smooth surface than on a rough surface."

Conduct an Experiment:

  • Step 1: Gather all the materials, including a toy car, a ramp, books, a ruler or measuring tape, and a stopwatch.
  • Step 2: Set up the ramp using the piece of cardboard or wooden board. Use books to adjust the height of the ramp.
  • Step 3: Place the toy car at the top of the ramp and release it, allowing it to move in a straight line.
  • Step 4: Use the ruler or measuring tape to measure the distance the toy car travels. Record the distance in your notebook.
  • Step 5: Use the stopwatch to measure the time it takes for the toy car to reach the end of its path. Record the time in your notebook.
  • Step 6: Glue sandpaper to the ramp. Repeat the experiment to see how the sand paper affects the motion of the toy car.

Observe and Record:

Observe how the toy car moves in a straight line and how different heights and surfaces affect its motion. Record your observations in your notebook, noting the distance traveled and the time taken.

A-Analyze Data:

Reflect on what you observed. How did the height of the ramp affect the speed and distance of the toy car? How did different surfaces influence its motion?

Draw a Conclusion:

Based on your observations, conclude whether your hypothesis was correct. Why or why not? Explain how different forces and conditions affected the linear motion of the toy car.

TAZ-Share Results:

Write a summary of your findings. Explain what you observed and learned about linear motion and how different factors affect it.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Linear Motion: Movement in a straight line.
  • Forces: Pushes or pulls that affect an object's motion.

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook pages.

**This experiment requires students to create their own experimental design. If the student is not yet comfortable designing their own experiment have them repeat Book 1 & Book 2 experiments to review the scientific method, asking questions, listing materials, and collecting data.

Background:

Welcome, young scientists! Today, you are space engineers on a critical mission to rescue a stranded Moon Rover. The Moon Rover has encountered a problem where one of its wheels is stuck, and it can't move. Your mission is to figure out how rotational motion can be used to design a mechanism that will help the rover get moving again.

The Moon Rover is equipped with wheels that need to rotate to move. You need to create an experiment to understand how rotational motion works and how it can be used to design a solution to help the rover. Your experiment must demonstrate a clear understanding of rotational motion.

Good luck, space engineers! We can't wait to see how you use rotational motion to save the Moon Rover! 🌕🚀

Materials:

  • A toy car or a small rover model Order here
  • Different types of wheels (e.g., round discs, gears, rubber wheels) Order here
  • A ruler Order here
  • Stopwatch Order here
  • Protractor Order here
  • A small incline (a piece of cardboard or a book) Order here
  • Masking tape Order here
  • A notepad and pencil Order here
  • Craft supplies (e.g., cardboard, straws, rubber bands, etc.) Order here
  • Glue or tape Order here
  • Optional: LEGO pieces or other building blocks Order here

Procedure:

Understand Rotational Motion:

  • Start by exploring how different wheels rotate. Attach different types of wheels to your toy car.
  • Place the toy car on a flat surface and push it gently to see how each type of wheel affects the movement.
  • Use a ruler to measure how far the car travels with each wheel type. Record your findings.

Experiment with Angles:

  • Use a protractor to set the incline at different angles (e.g., 10°, 20°, 30°).
  • Place the toy car at the top of the incline and let it roll down. Use the stopwatch to time how long it takes to reach the bottom.
  • Record the time for each angle and wheel type.

Design a Rescue Mechanism:

  • Think about how you can use rotational motion to help the rover. Consider making a lever, pulley system, or a new wheel design.
  • Use craft supplies to build your mechanism. Be creative and think like an engineer!
  • Attach your mechanism to the toy car and test it on different surfaces (flat, inclined).

Test and Refine:

  • Test your rescue mechanism multiple times. Observe how well it helps the toy car move.
  • Make adjustments to improve the performance. For example, try changing the size or type of wheels or modifying the angle of your incline.

Document Your Findings:

  • Draw pictures and write notes about your experiment and the rescue mechanism you built.
  • Explain how rotational motion helped solve the problem and what changes you made during your experiment.

Presentation:

  • Prepare a short presentation about your mission. Explain the problem, your experiment, and how you designed the solution.
  • Present your findings to your classmates or family, showing them how rotational motion helped rescue the Moon Rover.

Safety Guidelines:

  • Make sure to perform the experiment on a stable surface to avoid any accidents.
  • Be careful when using the protractor and ruler to avoid any sharp edges.
  • Always have an adult supervise your experiment, especially when using craft supplies and building materials.

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook pages.

Safety Warning for Using Limewater

When using limewater (calcium hydroxide solution) in your experiment, please keep the following safety precautions in mind to ensure a safe and enjoyable experience:

  1. Wear Protective Gear: Always wear safety goggles and gloves when handling limewater to protect your eyes and skin from potential irritation.
  2. Work in a Well-Ventilated Area: Ensure that your workspace is well-ventilated to avoid inhaling any fumes or dust that may arise from the limewater.
  3. Handle with Care: Limewater can cause skin irritation. If it comes into contact with your skin, wash the area thoroughly with water. In case of eye contact, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
  4. Avoid Ingestion: Do not ingest limewater. If accidental ingestion occurs, seek medical attention immediately.
  5. Storage: Store limewater in a labeled, tightly sealed container, away from children and pets. Keep it in a cool, dry place.
  6. Disposal: Dispose of limewater according to your local regulations. Do not pour it down the drain without neutralizing it first.

By following these precautions, you can safely and effectively use limewater in your experiment. Have fun and stay safe!

Materials List:

Objective:

To help you understand that the air we breathe contains different gases and to observe the presence of carbon dioxide in exhaled air.

Research:

Begin by exploring what the air is made of and the role of different gases. This will help guide your learning and make the experiment more meaningful. Read Chapter 17 and review the composition of air: mainly nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases like carbon dioxide (0.04%). Also review Chapter 3 on acids and bases and explore how the air we exhale, which contains carbon dioxide, may react with limewater.

  • Step 1: Think about a statement to begin your inquiry. Example "Air is made up of different gases, including carbon dioxide."
  • Step 2: Write down as many questions as you can about the statement you choose. Consider questions like: "How can we test for the presence of carbon dioxide?" "What happens when we exhale into a liquid?" "Why is carbon dioxide important?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Decide which questions are open-ended (requiring detailed answers) or closed-ended (yes/no answers). Refine them to make them clearer.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Choose one or two questions that you find most interesting or important to explore further. Write down your prioritized questions in your notebook.

Ask A Question:

Reflect on your research and write down the question that interests you the most in your notebook.

Form a Hypothesis:

Make a hypothesis (a guess) about your chosen question. For example:

  • "I think exhaling into limewater will show the presence of carbon dioxide."
  • "I think the limewater will become cloudy when I exhale into it."

Conduct an Experiment:

  1. Step 1: Gather all the materials, including clear glass jars, limewater solution, straws, a stopwatch, a measuring cup, and safety goggles.
  2. Step 2: Put on safety goggles to protect your eyes.
  3. Step 3: Measure and pour the same amount of limewater solution into each clear glass jar.
  4. Step 4: Use the marker to label the jars with different conditions you will test (e.g., "Exhaled Air," "Room Air").
  5. Step 5: Insert a straw into the jar labeled "Exhaled Air."
  6. Step 6: Blow gently into the straw for about 30 seconds, ensuring that your breath bubbles through the limewater.
  7. Step 7: Observe any changes in the limewater and record your observations.
  8. Step 8: Compare the limewater in the "Exhaled Air" jar to the limewater in the "Room Air" jar.

Observe and Record:

Observe any changes in the limewater in each jar. Record your observations in your notebook, noting the speed and extent of any changes.

Analyze Data:

Reflect on what you observed. How did exhaling into the limewater affect it? What gas do you think caused the change?

Draw a Conclusion:

Based on your observations, conclude whether your hypothesis was correct. Why or why not? Explain how the presence of carbon dioxide in exhaled air caused the limewater to become cloudy.

Share Results:

Write a summary of your findings. Explain what you observed and learned about the gases in the air, particularly carbon dioxide, and how you can test for its presence.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Composition of Air: The air we breathe is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, and small amounts of other gases like carbon dioxide.
  • Carbon Dioxide: A gas produced when we exhale and can be detected using limewater.

Click here for a downloadable pdf with student notebook pages.

Materials List:

Objective:

To help you identify and learn about different constellations in the night sky.

Research:

Begin by exploring what constellations are and how they are formed. This will help guide your learning and make the experiment more meaningful. Read Chapter 19 and review constellations: patterns of stars in the night sky that have been identified and named by various cultures throughout history.

  • Step 1: Think about a statement to begin your inquiry. Example "Constellations are patterns of stars in the night sky,” or “Constellations can be used for navigation.”
  • Step 2: Write down as many questions as you can about the statement. Consider questions like: "What are constellations?" "How do constellations help us navigate?" "What are some famous constellations?"
  • Step 3: Improve the questions. Decide which questions are open-ended (requiring detailed answers) or closed-ended (yes/no answers). Refine them to make them clearer.
  • Step 4: Prioritize the questions. Choose one or two questions that you find most interesting or important to explore further. Write down your prioritized questions in your notebook.

Ask A Question:

Reflect on your research and ask write down the question that interests you the most in your notebook.

Form a Hypothesis:

Make a hypothesis (a guess) about your chosen question. For example:

  • "I think I can identify the Big Dipper easily because it is one of the most famous constellations."
  • "I think constellations look different depending on the time of year."

Conduct an Experiment:

  1. Step 1: Gather all the materials, including a star chart, flashlight with red cellophane, blanket or lawn chairs, and notebook.
  2. Step 2: Find a safe outdoor location with a clear view of the night sky, away from city lights.
  3. Step 3: Use the flashlight with red cellophane to preserve your night vision while reading the star chart.
  4. Step 4: Lay on the blanket or sit in the lawn chairs and allow your eyes to adjust to the darkness for about 10-15 minutes.
  5. Step 5: Use the star chart to locate and identify different constellations in the night sky. Look for patterns and shapes that match those on the chart.
  6. Step 6: Optional: Use binoculars or a telescope to get a closer look at the stars in the constellations.
  7. Step 7: Record the constellations you observe and any interesting features in your notebook.

Observe and Record:

Observe the night sky and use the star chart to identify different constellations. Record your observations in your notebook, noting the names of the constellations and any interesting features you observe.

Analyze Data:

Reflect on what you observed. Were you able to identify the constellations? Did they look different than you expected? How did the time of year affect your observations?

Draw a Conclusion:

Based on your observations, conclude whether your hypothesis was correct. Why or why not? Explain how you were able to identify the constellations and any challenges you faced.

Share Results:

Write a summary of your findings. Explain what you observed and learned about constellations and how to identify them in the night sky.

Safety Note:

Always have an adult with you when observing the night sky. Make sure you are in a safe location.

Scientific Concepts Explained:

  • Constellations: Patterns of stars in the night sky that have been identified and named by various cultures.
  • Star Chart: A map of the night sky used to locate and identify constellations.